Visiting fans have been accused of making "monkey chants" after the Germany global shielded the ball out of play while under pressure from forward Stephan El Shaarawy.
The UEFA Control, Ethics and Disciplinary Body will review the case on 16th November.
Rudiger, a former Roma centre-back who Chelsea purchased for £35m this summer, is said to have been subjected to monkey chants by fans of his old team at Stamford Bridge during a 3-3 draw.
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A statement from UEFA on Friday read, "Disciplinary proceedings have been opened following the UEFA Champions League group stage match between Chelsea FC and AS Roma (3-3), played on October 18 in England".
Chelsea had taken a 2-0 lead in their Champions League face-off but a brace from Edin Dzeko and a strike from Aleksandar Kolarov saw the away side turn the match around.
The German has received similar abuse during his time in Italy from rival fans.
Recall that before the German global moved to England for an initial £29m, he said racism at football matches was a "serious issue" in Italy.