Despite TV replays proving Pliskova's shot was in, HawkEye and the challenge system isn't used on clay so the chair and line umpires rely on ball marks to settle disputes.
Karolina Pliskova vented her frustration on the umpire's chair with her racket after her loss to Maria Sakkari Wednesday in Rome.
The outburst overshadowed what was an otherwise great day for Sakkari, who fell behind 1-5 in the first set to the soon-to-be-fined world No. 5 before rallying for a 3-6, 6-3, 7-5 win, which was her first against a top-five player.
The 26-year-old appeared to have brought up game point with a simple overhead smash, only for the ball to be called out.
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Sakkari moved past the former World No.1 in a contentious two-hour and 21-minute barnburner, breaking Pliskova's eight-match streak of three-set victories this season.
After the match, Pliskova didn't shake hands with the chair umpire and struck the chair several times with her racket.
Pliskova's error on the ensuing rally allowed Sakkari to serve for the match and the 22-year-old converted - which is when the Czech really let loose.
For Sakkari it was the first top five win of her career and she will face the victor of the second-round match between 11th seed Angelique Kerber of Germany and Romania's Irina-Camelia Begu.