If you go to Settings and check under Face ID & Passcode, you'll see a new toggle for USB Accessories. As now implemented, the feature is even more restrictive: When turned on, it will "prevent USB accessories from connecting when your [iPhone/iPad] has been locked for more than an hour". This countdown can be reset by simply plugging in Apple's Lightning to USB 3.0 adaptor.
The update includes a new feature called "USB Restricted Mode" that will disable a data connection from the iPhone's charging/data port at the bottom of the device after one hour of being locked by default.
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What USB Restricted Mode does is to block data communications over the Lightning port an hour after the iPhone or iPad was last unlocked. The trick, then, is to attach a USB accessory to the port as soon as possible after stealing (or seizing) the iPhone, in order to stop it from locking down. The resetting of the built-in feature works even with an untrusted USB accessory, one that has never been paired with the device before. Significant but not listed: USB Restricted Mode, a change originally included in the iOS 12 beta that makes it more hard for anyone, including authorities, to break into the iPhone through the Lightning port. "In other words, we have found no obvious way to break USB Restricted Mode once it is already engaged". iPhone users running iOS 11.4 right now have been complaining in droves that battery life has suffered after the update. If you want finalized software, iOS 11.4.1 is the one you need, which Apple made available earlier this week. The device can then be accessed once again through USB. The Grayshift boxes plug into the Lightning port and remove prolonged delays between PIN code attempts, allowing law enforcement (or criminals) to brute-force an unlock.
However, if a cop gets to seize a locked iPhone until the next iOS update that brings fix to this flaw, they can potentially get around the USB Restricted Mode through a USB accessory.