As Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer called the new pact with Canada and Mexico a "paradigm-shifting model", US trade partners are now bracing for contentious talks.
Something in the new trade agreement that will have a big impact on dairy farmers in NY is the potential elimination of Canada's Class 7 dairy pricing program.
Another opposition leader, Jagmeet Singh, of the Canada New Democratic Party, joined by trade critics Karine Trudel and Tracey Ramsey, argued that Canada seems to have gotten a new but worse deal. Still, they doubt whether there will be an equally stronger implementation of the new laws.
Trump signed an executive order in September authorizing sanctions against those found to be involved in election interference, but US officials have said repeatedly they have not seen almost the same level of activity by Russian Federation and others in the midterms as in 2016.
"It makes it very hard to do business on the buyer and seller side when it is not under their control", said Gordon.
"All we're giving is an opportunity for the U.S.to dump surplus milk", said Alberta Milk's general manager, Mike Southwood. In May, a pound of bagged milk could cost one dollar but might be $1.25 per pound a month or two later.
The USMCA deal also eliminates a class of milk created to use the oversupply of skim milk, the dairy association said. First, it permits dairy farmers to band together into cartels to artificially limit production and drive up the price, something that is illegal if done by any other industry. A previous Canadian policy, the Class 7 milk policy, restricted dairy imports and made it cheaper for Canadian processors to purchase domestic dairy products.
Ontario and Quebec officials, including Ontario Trade Minister Jim Wilson, have said they're concerned about the dairy concessions. A recent intelligence report said China uses joint ventures to try to acquire technical know-how, seeks partnerships with US government labs to learn about specific technology and information about running such facilities, and uses front companies to hide the hand of the Chinese government and acquire technology under USA export controls.
Nonetheless, the US got its way, forcing Canada to yield a larger market share for American dairy farmers.
There's a series of Dairy Farmers of Ontario meetings that take place throughout the year, and Ireland says he was speaking with about 50 other farmers in Guelph earlier this week.
Chinese effort to meddle US elections, influence opinion unprecedented: US NSA
The lines of communication remained open between Beijing and Washington , decreasing the risk of hot conflicts erupting, he said. Pence pointed directly to news coming out about a burgeoning "trade war" between the United States and China .
"It's disappointing for sure, because the Canadian government was saying we wouldn't lose any more of our market", said Mickey Aylard, president of the Vancouver Island Milk Producers' organization.
Darigold President and CEO Stan Ryan said in a statement that the new agreement would preserve and expand the partnership with Mexico while also enhancing access to the Canadian market.
"Once again, dairy farmers again paid the price to conclude an worldwide trade agreement", it reads. And that hurt competition from US imports.
"The dairy aspects of USMCA were some of the most fiercely contested and divisive issues".
"This is death by a thousand cuts, and weakening a thriving Canadian industry", Kootstra said.
Supply management works in two ways.
"There's a lot of gains, a lot of neutrals, and there are some significant improvements for dairy", he added.
"He traded us away", he said. "We are delighted with what has been delivered in this agreement". NAFTA is out but the United States-Mexico-Canada-Agreement (USMCA) is in.
Furthermore, Canada has ensured that any US Section 232 tariffs will not impact Canadian automobile and auto-parts exports. And it wasn't until Canada agreed to end the controversial policy a new trade agreement was reached.
Pence pointed to Trump's tough line on Beijing, particularly Trump's decision to impose $250 billion in tariffs on goods coming from the country.