Smith developed a method using a virus that infects bacteria to produce new proteins while Winter used the same phage display technique to engineer the evolution of antibodies, with the aim of producing more effective medicines.
Smith is also a pro-Palestinian activist and has several anti-Israeli groups such as the Jewish Voice for Peace, which describes itself as an American organization seeking to end "the Israeli occupation of the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem [al-Quds]".
Arnold's enzymes allow for more environmentally friendly manufacturing of chemicals like pharmaceuticals and manufacturing of renewable fuels. Smith developed the process in 1985, and Winter built on his research to conduct the directed evolution of antibodies and, subsequently, production of new pharmaceuticals.
Scientists Frances Arnold, George Smith and Sir Gregory Winter have won the 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for research using directed evolution to produce enzymes for new chemicals and pharmaceuticals, the award-giving body says.
Smith's development of phage display to link proteins to genes was described by the academy as "brilliant in its simplicity".
Our laureates have applied principles of Darwin in the test tubes, and used this approach to develop new types of chemicals for the greatest benefit of humankind.
She said that while historically it was true that far fewer women than men worked in research, the scientific community needed to wake up the field's changing demographics. It is a popular way to treat rheumatoid arthritis, some skin diseases and inflammatory bowel diseases.
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NBC News reports that she wrote that her "bottom line" was that "a "he said, she said" case is incredibly hard to prove". Trump said that the Democrats opposed to Kavanaugh's nomination are "evil people " who are out to 'destroy people '.
Earlier this week, two immunologists, James Allison of the United States and Tasuku Honjo of Japan, won the Nobel Medicine Prize for research into how the body's natural defences can fight cancer.
Smith, 77, was a professor for 40 years at the University of Missouri at the Division of Biological Sciences.
Alfred Nobel, who created the prizes in his will, was himself a chemist, and devised his famed awards in part to atone for inventing dynamite.
As Quartz noted, prior to winning the Nobel Prize, Strickland's only previous mention on Wikipedia was in an article about Mourou. The 2018 Nobel Prize in chemistry is shared by three people including Mizzou's own Dr. George P. Smith.
"Chemistry is filled with brilliant women, so I think we'll see a steady stream of Nobel prizes awarded to women", says Arnold.
"Twenty-five years ago, [this technology] was considered the lunatic fringe", Arnold explained in a 2014 interview marking her induction to the National Inventors Hall of Fame.
"That was certainly the case with my work".
Arthur Ashkin became the oldest Nobel Prize laureate at 96, while Donna Strickland of the University of Waterloo in Canada became only the third woman to win a physics Nobel.
No Nobel literature prize will be awarded this year due to a sex abuse scandal at the Swedish Academy, which choses the victor.