Inside you'll find soil, yeast, fruit fly and silkworm eggs, as well as cotton, potato, tomato, and (flowering) thale cress seeds.
This of course marks the first time that a plant has ever grown on the Moon, with the seeds naturally sprouting in a specially designed and concealed container.
In the biosphere, the plants are shielded from harmful radiation, and the temperature is maintained artificially, since the moon lacks a sufficient atmosphere to block radiation from space or to regulate heat.
It would mean that astronauts could potentially harvest their own food in space, reducing the need to come back down to Earth to resupply.
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If I want to go again I'll need to have a big operation, which there is no guarantee I'll be able to come back from. Federer earned a 6-2 6-3 6-2 win over Istomin in the first round of the 2006 Australian Open .
On Tuesday, Chinese state media said the cotton seeds had now grown buds. "Learning about these plants' growth in a low-gravity environment would allow us to lay the foundation for our future establishment of space base", said Professor Liu Hanlong, who is heading the experiment.
Fred Watson, Australian Astronomical Observatory's astronomer-at-large was also encouraged by the progress.
The landing is a milestone for China's fledgling space program, marking the first time that China has completed a significant space mission that was not already performed previously by the USA or Russian Federation.
Cotton seedlings are growing in a habitat on the moon. Cotton could be used for clothing, rapeseed for oil, and the potatoes a source of food. Then, when the lander reached the moon's surface, ground control instructed the mini-biosphere to water the plants and expose them to natural light.
Image: China's lunar rover Jade Rabbit 2.
Xinhua said the probe had taken about 170 pictures so far which have been sent back to Earth.