The material appears to be the radioactive remnants of a solar storm that battered the atmosphere.
For those alive at the time, the only major noticeable effect of the massive solar storms would be that the northern lights would be visible at very low latitudes.
Scientists revealed that the occurrence of such a massive solar storm in the modern day will create havoc in the planet and will disrupt technological infrastructure including communication and navigation.
Earth is constantly being bombarded by cosmic particles.
During that solar storm, the sun unleashed a series of powerful solar flares that were so powerful telegraph operators' offices experienced a surge in electricity which resulted in some buildings setting on fire.
Leon Golub from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, who was not involved in the research, said the findings indicate a storm far bigger than the Carrington Event and hundreds of times larger than anything recorded during the space age. For example, in 1989, a solar outburst blacked out the entire Canadian province of Quebec within seconds, damaging transformers as far away as New Jersey, and almost shutting down USA power grids from the mid-Atlantic through the Pacific Northwest.
"If that solar storm had occurred today, it could have had severe effects on our high-tech society", says Raimund Muscheler, professor of geology at Lund University, Sweden.
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A strong wave of high-energy particles should be able to destroy most of the electronic devices which are now in use, including primary navigation and communication systems. Ancient ice cores, including the samples from Greenland featured in the study, could contain spikes of beryllium-10 and chlorine-36 from SPEs. During the research, scientists found elevated levels of beryllium-10 and chlorine-36 isotopes embedded in the ice cores, and these radioactive atoms are usually considered the byproduct of solar storms. 993-994, and the other about A.D.
"There are high-energy solar energetic particle events, or solar proton events", Muscheler told Paul Rincon at BBC News. This event can be compared to the strongest SPE detected at 775 CE, and it is only the third of its kind.
"Our research suggests that the risks are now underestimated". "There might be more that we have not yet discovered".
"That's why we must increase society's protection again solar storms".
To learn more about SPEs, Lund University's Professor Raimund Muscheler and his colleagues from Sweden, France, Switzerland, Korea, the UAE, and the United States analyzed ice cores from Greenland.
According to the recent study, which was published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, there is the possibility of another one striking.